„Kresy, pogranicza a literatura dla dzieci i młodzieży”
Numer monograficzny pod red. Anny Nosek i Anny Józefowicz
I. Uniwersalia (The Universals)
Children’s Literature in Poland in the Light of Publishing Statistics (1944-2012)
Fiction books for children and youth published in Poland in the years 1944-2012 are an average 20-25% of the total belles-lettres. For the years 1989/1990 was the state market and the state decided about publishing plans. Since 1990 the publishing market is a private market and about published books decide publishers and readers. The text presents a statistical analysis of published children’s books, translations of foreign literature, a list of the most popular Polish and foreign authors and a list of the most frequently published books for children in the years 1944-2012. The analysis was based on the data from the statistical yearbook „Polish Publishing in Figures” being preparing at the National Library, Warsaw.
Key words: children’s literature in Poland, publishing statistics (1944-2012)
2. Halina Waszkiel, Współczesna dramaturgia dla dzieci i młodzieży – między literaturą a teatrem (przykład Marty Guśniowskiej)
The Contemporary Dramaturgy for Children and Youth – between Literature and Theatre (With the Use of an Example: Marta Guśniowska)
Polish contemporary dramaturgy for children and youth develops recently quite good. There are two problems, however. First: lack of the publications – publishers prefer to edit poems and novels for children, not dramas. Second: absence of dramaturgy for children and youth at theatre studies, which are usually devoted to the dramaturgy for adults. On the other hand, scientists who study the literature for children and youth, usually pass over the dramaturgy at their researches. One of the best space to stage dramas for children and youth is puppet theatre. Between others, Marta Guśniowska is one of the best authors writing for such kind of the theatre. The analysis of some of her plays are the examples of “puppet dramatology” – modern science concerning puppet drama as one of the key elements of the theatre.
Key words: puppet theatre, dramaturgy for children and youth, books for children, dramatology, drama as a text for theatre
II. W stronę Kresów (Towards the Borderlands)
1. Anetta Bogusława Strawińska, Dziecięca wyobraźnia uzewnętrzniona w leksyce północnokresowej (na podstawie poradników językowych przełomu XIX i XX wieku)
Children’s Imagination. Expressed in the Lexis of Northern Kresy (Based on Linguistic Guides from the 19th and 20th Century)
The article is an attempt to recreate the imagination of children in north-eastern Kresy (the eastern borderlands of pre-war Poland) based on the vocabulary collected in two works on linguistic correctness from the turn of the 19th and 20th century (Błędów naszych w mowie i piśmie ku szkodzie języka polskiego popełnionych oraz prowincjonalizmów by Aleksander Walicki; 3rd ed., Warszawa-Kraków 1886 and Błędów naszych. Rzeczy o czystości języka polskiego na Litwie by Aleksander Łętowski; 1st ed., Wilno 1915) which provide us with an image of the Polish language in that region through the eyes of not so much linguistics experts (who stand guard over linguistic purity and correctness) as patriotic enthusiasts (people who really cared about their endangered mother tongue). The presented lexical material includes both native vocabulary, which forms 24.6% (236) of all the lexemes, and borrowings from other languages, which form 75.4% (721) of all the lexemes. Most of the examples present emotionally loaded vocabulary, i.e. pejorative, disrespectful, or facetious vocabulary. Based on grammatical criteria: nouns dominate in the excerpted material, there is thirteen of them. Seven of the lexemes are
verbs. Adjectives are represented by two words. The lexemes are assigned to types based on lexical features and authors’ notes included in the individual entries.
Key words: children’s imagination, guidebook, eastern borderlands, linguistic mistake, purisme, fantasy, regionalism
Maria Rodziewiczówna as the Author of Novels for Young People
This article tries to present Maria Rodziewiczówna as the author of novels for young people on the basis of her two literary texts entitled Summer of the Forest People and Eerie Grandpa. In both these works Rodziewiczówna showed some patterns and models of conduct and she created the characters who are positive and easy to accept. She also showed that being a positive character demands effort and compliance with certain rules. The writer in Summer of the Forest People and Eerie Grandpa also used fairytale elements and described nature beautifully. With the use of these literary works she wanted to show a correct way of behaviour of young people.
Key words: Maria Rodziewiczówna, novels for young people, interpretation
Anna Elzenberg-Zahorska`s Literary Works for Children and Teenagers
The aim of the paper is to present the forgotten literary works for children and adolescents of Anna Zahorska, the poet, writer and critic. She was known during the period of Young Poland (Modernism) under the pen name Savitri. She was born in the Eastern Marches and a lot of spaces in her literary works she devoted to problems of borderland. During the interwar period the character of her literary works changed. A lot of her works she devoted for children and youth. Only last Dictionaries noticed some of the achievements in this field. During the communist period Zahorska’s work has not been noticed. Anna Zahorska wrote poems for children. They were scattered in the press of her time. She also wrote longer literary works, mainly scripts for children’s theater and fairy tales. She cooperated with the Salesian Publishing House. Her works for children and youth are characterized by original fiction, humor, grotesque and visibility of the sphere of values, especially the spiritual values.
Key words: Anna Elzenberg-Zahorska, literary works for children
Zofia Żurakowska – the Hidden Melancholy
The subject of the text is to analyze the images of the child and childhood in the novels of the Zofia Żurakowska Skarby (Treasures) and Pożegnanie domu (Farewell to home). They are based on the memoirs of the author, born and bred in Wołyń. Themes and topics specific to this type of autobiographical texts create spacetime childhood on the model of the Arcadian. But this myth is not clear and homogeneous, they appear in the idyll of childhood images of states of fear, anxiety and danger. The experience of losing the family home is recorded as a palimpsest, in which the author encrypter poignant personal sense of loss itself. Literary image of a happy childhood also contains traces of melancholy, which the author tried to overcome by writing for children.
Key words: Zofia Żurakowska, the myth of childhood, autobiographical novel, melancholy, home
5. Jagoda Wierzejska, Walki polsko-ukraińskie o Lwów w literaturze dla dzieci i młodzieży dwudziestolecia międzywojennego
The Polish-Ukrainian Struggle for Lviv in Children’s Literature of the Interwar Period
The article presents an analysis of novels for children and youth created in the interwar period, which present the Polish-Ukrainian War 1918-1919, in particular the fight, which in Polish patriotic tradition is called “the defense of Lviv.” These novels are interpreted in the context of the Polish discourse, which in the 20s and 30s of the 20th century promoted the Polishness of Lviv, having designated Ukrainians and Jews as unequivocal enemies. Highlighting the relationship between the aforementioned works and that discourse, I analyze the fact that literary representation of the Polish-Ukrainian War, in particular “the defense of Lviv” almost entirely confines to Polish children’s literature. At the core of this phenomenon lays the use of the theme of fighting for Lviv as the device of shaping patriotism and citizenship. Educational and ideological functions of the analyzed literature were more important than aesthetic one.
Key words: Polish-Ukrainian War, Defense of Lviv, Eastern Galicia, children’s literature
Two Models of the Farewell to Borderlands. Melchior Wańkowicz and Zofia Żurakowska
Melchior Wańkowicz in his novel Szczenięce lata (Puppie’s years) and Zofia Żurakowska in her work Pożegnanie domu (Farewell to home) addressed the problem of Poles residing on areas which after 1921 found themselves outside the borders of the Republic of Poland. The writers, using their own experience, described destructions caused by the war and the Bolshevik revolution as well as experiences of people forced to leave the family properties. Wańkowicz, by the eyes of the young protagonist, watched and perpetuated the traditional nobility culture of the typical Borderlands manor. He used the noble jargon for description of this culture. Żurakowska placed ephasis on the problem of the regain of homeland, to which she moved the protagonists of the nobel, who were exiled from the Borderlands. In this way she saved the youthful protagonists from the feeling of homelessness and the pessimism imposed by history.
Key words: Melchior Wańkowicz, Zofia Żurakowska, the Borderlands, the Bolshevik revolution, the nobility culture
7. Natalia Szabołtas, Pisarka kresowa Irena Misztal – jej działalność pedagogiczna i twórczość literacka dla dzieci
Irena Misztal, the Writer of Borderlands – her Pedagogical Activity and Literary Works for Children
Polish literary legacy owes its wealth to a large extent the former regions of the Polish Republic, which defines the significant word – Borderlands. Many writers coming from those sites has made an enormous contribution to the development of Polish literature. Among them was a large group of authors writing for a young audience. Thinking about the young readers they wrote poems, stories, novels, which were characterized by high artistic value. However, there is a large group of forgotten borderland`s writers. Therefor we may just include known only in the local environment, inhabitant of the borderlands of Grodno Irena Misztal. She is an extremely interesting figure. Hailing from a family of multicultural roots, like the majority of people living in borderland regions, she devoted almost all her life to pedagogical work. Her ideal became a famous heroine of Stefan Żeromski’s novel – the title Siłaczka (the title stands for strong woman). In addition, for spreading education among the poor little ones from Polish villages around Grodno and later in Ełk, also she devoted her life to writing. Beside the sentimental poems and novels about “real life”, she also was writing short stories and theatrical scenes for children. Unfortunately, a large part of her achievements lost during the war, and that what had survived not everything was published. Some of her works have been still in the drawers. The paper discusses her pedagogical activity and literary works which have managed to find. Among them is an interesting tale titled Princess Ełkunia. The paper is a kind of memento for such artists as Irena Misztal.
Key words: Irena Misztal, pedagogical activity, literary works for children
III. W przestrzeniach Podlasia (In the areas of the Podlasie region)
1. Anna Nosek, Puszcza Białowieska w literaturze dla dzieci i młodzieży do okresu międzywojnia – zarys historii motywu
The Białowieża Forest in Literature for Children and Youth until the Interwar Period – the Outline of the Moti-f’s History
The article presents the motif of the Białowieża Forest in literature for children and youth until the interwar period. Such motifs are found in the texts from the beginning of the first half of the 20th century written by Artur Oppman, Bohdan Dyakowski, Ferdynand Ossendowski, Mikołaj Mazanowski, Antonina Żabińska. The writers use the literary topos of the forest-home in their description of the Białowieża Forest, they idealize the presented world and point out not only the values of nature but also the axiological and existential ones. The forest and living there helps to shape young people physically and mentally. In the novels with the motif of the Białowieża Forest, authors promote such value as: patriotism, work and scout’s ethic.
Key words: Białowieża Forest, literature for children and youth, interpretation
2. Anna Józefowicz, Portrety dzieci oraz obrazy ich dzieciństwa zachowane w legendach regionu Podlasia – kilka wniosków dotyczących edukacji dziecka
The Portraits of Children and Imagines of Childhood in Legends of Podlasie Region – Some Conclusions for Education
The child is the hero of several stories in the collection of analyzed legends of Podlasie region. Most children had witnessed miracles, manifestations of holiness. Such a child can be defined as a medium between the temporal and the spiritual world. Another types of children that have occurred in the legend are: the hero, the clever and the prankster. Legends of the Podlasie region show rather severe life of a child in the countryside. There is no question about the myth of arcadian childhood. Legend told for a warning and knowledge are still timeless species whose values are relevant today, acting pattern to follow. The positive features of children’s heroes, their diligence, resourcefulness, courage as well as respect for nature can be a pattern of behavior for future generations.
Key words: child, childchood, legend, regional education
The Kingdom Captured by Dream – Marta Guśniowska’s “Kraina Śpiochów” (“The Land of Sleepyheads”)
The article focuses on two points: first, it shows Marta Guśniowska’s link with Białystok (defines the way in which the city facilitates the creative process) and second, describes the oneiric issues in Kraina Śpiochów (The Land of Sleepyheads). The oneiric vision mainly fulfils two roles in the fairytale: constructional and metaphorical. The article also brings up the mechanism of oneiric reification occurring in treating the dream as one of the ‘quasi-realistic’ elements and the way the fairy land appears (magical realism, breaking the classic fairytale conventions). The incorporation of dreamy vision into the presented world visualizes a wide array of literary skills of the Białystok rooted writer, whose works are an interesting lecture for both young and adult readers.
Key words: dream, fairy tale, magical realism, dream reification, Kraina Śpiochów (The Land of Sleepyheads)
IV. Pogranicza i konteksty (Borders and contexts)
The oldest emigrant songs of Crimean Tatars
The article considers the cycle of emigrant lyrics written from the end of the 18th century to the mid 19th century by Crimean Tatars. The author focuses on sound, lexical and emotional aspects of the analyzed texts, probing into their historical, literary and cultural contexts. The analytical part of the article is supplemented with numerous quotations from the original texts and their Ukrainian translations.
Key words: Crimean Tatars, songs of 18. and 19th century, Ukrainian literature
Najdawniejsze emigracyjne pieśni krymskich Tatarów
Artykuł poświęcono cyklowi krymskotatarskiej liryki emigracyjnej, powstałej w okresie od końca XVIII do połowy XIX wieku. Autor skupia się nad warstwą brzmieniową, leksykalną i nastrojowo-uczuciową analizowanych tekstów, bada ich historycznoliterackie i kulturowe konteksty. Analiza wzbogacona została licznymi cytatami tatarskich pieśni w brzmieniu oryginalnym oraz w tłumaczeniu na język ukraiński.
Słowa kluczowe: Tatarzy Krymscy, pieśni XVIII-XIX wieku, ukraińska literatura
V. Recenzje naukowe (Reviews)
1. Barbara Noworolska, Polacy w Kazachstanie [rec. Antoni Kuczyński, Polacy w Kazachstanie. Zesłania – dziedzictwo – nadzieje – powroty, Wydawnictwo „Kubajak”, Krzeszowice 2014, ss. 544]
Poles in Kazakhstan
Barbara Noworolska provides an interpretive reading of the volume Poles in Kazakhstan: Deportations – Legacy – Hopes – Returns (2014), written by Antoni Kuczyński, a renowned researcher into the problem of Polish deportations. Nowrolska is interested in the historical aspects of the “siberiad”, shown through the fates of particular deportees to Kazakhstan. Recognizing Kuczyński’s erudition and scholarly meticulousness, the reviewer emphasizes the emotional load of the volume’s language, which seems an obvious asset for the readers. All in all, the book – so the argument goes – is recommended for all those who are fascinated by the history, geography and exoticism of Asia.
Key words: Antoni Kuczyński, Poles in Kazakhstan, Siberia, Mongols, deportations, Central Asia, Jan di Piano Carpini
2. Grzegorz Czerwiński, Barokowa komparatystyka Walentyny Sobol (o książce „Barok ukraiński. Teksty i konteksty”) [rec. Валентина Соболь, Українське бароко. Тексти і контексти, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa 2015, ss. 382]
Walentyna Sobol’s Baroque Comparative Study (On The Ukrainian Baroque. Texts And Contexts)
Grzegorz Czerwiński, while offering an interpretive analysis of The Ukrainian Baroque. Texts and Contexts, argues that Walentyna Sobol’s book is a valuable contribution to the studies of the Ukrainian Baroque. Published in the Ukrainian by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, the study sums up years of the author’s research into the literature written between the 16th and the 18th centuries. Considered from the viewpoint of the Polish reader, the book demonstrates the development of the literature written in the Ukrainian, as well as its links with Polish and West European literatures. Czerwiński assumes that Sobol’s comparative study of the Ukrainian Baroque will enjoy wide readership, i.e. it will not be of interest only to the scholars specializing in East European literary studies.
Key words: Walentyna Sobol, Ukrainian Baroque, Polish and West European literature, history of Ukrainian literature, comparative studies, East Slavic literary studies
3. Joanna Wildowicz, Strażnik Pogranicza [rec. monografii zbiorowej Cormac McCarthy, red. M. Paryż, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa 2014, ss. 233]
The Border Keeper
The third volume in the series Mistrzowie Literatury Amerykańskiej presented by the Department of American Literature at the Institute of English Studies, University of Warsaw is dedicated to Cormac McCarthy – one of the most reputable, contemporary American writer. The collection, edited by Marek Paryż in 2014, encompasses ten essays examining McCathy’s achievements as a novelist and playwright. The monograph strives to outline the writer’s literary works in a chronological order. The introduction, written by M. Paryż, acknowledges briefly the novelist’s literary background and career, as well as his output. The following chapters address McCarthy’s individual novels and his two theatrical plays. In the review I try to evaluate each essay contributed to the monograph and analyse the insight of their approach. Thus, I approve of the academics’ attempt to respond to the novelist’s works. Alike I provide some criticism of their overview.
Key words: Cormac McCarthy, American literature, Western literature, Pastoral literature, post-apocalyptic novels
4. Michał Siedlecki, Metafizyczna wizja świata w poezji Mickiewicza, Norwida i Leśmiana [rec. Kazimierz Świegocki, Wizje człowieka i świata w poezji Mickiewicza, Norwida i Leśmiana, Wydawnictwo Akademii Humanistyczno-Ekonomicznej w Łodzi, Łódź 2013, ss. 344]
Metaphysical Vision Of The World In Mickiewicz’s, Norwid’s And Leśmian’s Poetry
In his review of Kazimierz Świegocki’s Visions of the Man and the World in Mickiewicz’s, Norwid’s and Leśmian’s Poetry Siedlecki pays a particular attention to the fact that while the book focuses on the vision of the man and the world in the lyrics of the Polish major poets, it brings to the foreground the common denominator of their oeuvre, which is – to a large extent – metaphysics. Siedlecki assumes that Świegocki’s text – a perceptive and erudite study within the field of literary anthropology – offers a rather one-sided perspective; still, it remains interdisciplinary in its openness to philosophy, cultural or literary studies.
Key words: Kazimierz Świergocki, Adam Mickiewicz, Cyprian Kamil Norwid, Bolesław Leśmian, metaphysics, anthropology of culture
5. Monika Krawiel, Ukraińskie rozstaje [rec. J. Poliszczuk, Ukraińskie rozstaje. Studia, pod red. J. Ławskiego, M. Siedleckiego, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku, Białystok 2015, ss. 174]
In her interpretive analysis of Jarosław Poliszczuk’s Ukrainian Crossroads. Studies, Monika Krawiel emphasizes the fact that it offers a very interesting perspective on the Ukrainian literature and culture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as on the condition of the humanities in contemporary Ukraine. It is, as she argues, of paramount importance as these days Ukraine has again become hot news in the media. The political upheaval in the country has shown that the Ukrainians are able to unite so as to struggle for their national and cultural identity. Poliszczuk encourages his readers to deepen their knowledge of the Ukrainian literature, whose history has not been sufficiently explored yet, but which still offers food for academic and non-academic thought.
Key words: Jarosław Poliszczuk, Tatiana Mejzerska, Jarosław Ławski, Michał Siedlecki, Ukrainian literature and culture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, essay
VI. Noty o Autorach (Notes on the Contributors)